Нижний Новгород

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    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Нижний Новгород

    Contents

    History ………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

    Economy ……………………………………………………………………………………. 7

    Transportation …………………………………………………………………………… 9

    City layout …………………………………………………………………………………. 10

    Main sights ………………………………………………………………………………..11

    Sports ………………………………………………………………………………………..

    Nizhny Novgorod

    (Russian:

    Ни

    жний

    Но

    вгород

    ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. Petersburg, and

    Novosibirsk. Population: 1,311,252 (Russian Census (2002);[8] 1,438,133 (1989 Census).[13] It is the economic and cultural center of the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and also the

    administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Volga Federal District.

    From 1932 to 1990, the city was known as Gorky (

    Го

    рький

    ),[11] after the writer Maxim Gorky who was born there.

    The city is an important economic, transport and cultural center of the nation

    History

    A seat of medieval princes

    After the destruction of the Mordvin In\"azor Obram administrative centre and fillfort named Obran Osh (Ashli) at the site

    of future stone Kremlin in 1220, a small Russian wooden hillfort was founded by Grand Duke Yuri II of Russia in 1221. Located at the confluence of two most important rivers of his

    principality, the Volga (Mordvin \"Rav\" or \"Rava\"), and the Oka, and Obran Osh was renamed Nizhny Novgorod. Its name literally means Lower Newtown, to distinguish it from the older

    Novgorod. Its independent existence was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it. The major attempt made by In\"azor Purgaz from Arzamas in January 1229 was repulsed, but

    after the death of Yuri II on March 4, 1238 at the Battle of Sit River the Mongols occupied the fortress and the remnants of small Nizhny Novgorod settlement which surrendered without

    any resistance in order to preserve what had been developed since Purgaz\'s attack eight years earlier. Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took

    advantage of a natural moat formed by the two rivers.

    Along with Moscow and Tver, Nizhny Novgorod was among several newly-founded towns that escaped Mongol devastation on

    account of their insignificance, but grew into during the period of the Tatar Yoke. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir - Suzdal

    Principality in 1264. After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry

    Konstantinovich (1323-1383) sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; he built a stone citadel and several churches and was a patron of historians. The earliest extant

    manuscript of the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Laurentian Codex, was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377.

    The strongest fortress of Muscovy

    fter the city\'s incorporation into Muscovy (1392), the local princes took the name Shuisky and settled in Moscow, where

    they were prominent at the court and briefly ascended the throne in the person of Vasili IV. After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was

    restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan. The enormous red-brick kremlin, one of the strongest and earliest

    preserved citadels in Russia, was built in 1508–1511 under the supervision of Peter the Italian. The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in 1520 and 1536.

    In 1612, the so-called national militia, gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Minin, and commanded by Knyaz Dmitry

    Pozharsky expelled the Polish troops from Moscow, thus putting an end to the \"Time of Troubles\" and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty. The main square before the kremlin is

    named after Minin and Pozharsky, although it is locally known simply as \"Minin Square.\" Minin\'s remains are buried in the citadel. (In commemoration of these events, on Oct...

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