Nanotechnology and polymer nanocomposites

    Дисциплина: Разное
    Тип работы: Доклад
    Тема: Nanotechnology and polymer nanocomposites

    REPUBLIC
    OF UZBEKISTAN
    MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION
    TASHKENT
    STATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
    SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEX
    “FAN VA TARAQQIYOT”
    REPORT
    NANOTECHNOLOGY
    NANOCOMPOSITES
    Prepared by: 2
    nd year post-graduate student
    Rahimov G.N.
    Tashkent
    City
    - May, 2006
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    TOC \\o \"1-3\" \\h \\z \\u
    NANOTECHNOLOGY
    PAGEREF _Toc136068288 \\h
    History of use
    PAGEREF _Toc136068289 \\h
    Potential benefits
    PAGEREF _Toc136068290 \\h
    Potential risks
    PAGEREF _Toc136068291 \\h
    Manufacturing
    PAGEREF _Toc136068292 \\h
    Key Characteristics
    PAGEREF _Toc136068293 \\h
    Problems
    PAGEREF _Toc136068294 \\h
    Interdisciplinarian ensemble
    PAGEREF _Toc136068295 \\h
    Prominent individuals in nanotechnology
    PAGEREF _Toc136068296 \\h
    NANOCOMPOSITES
    PAGEREF _Toc136068297 \\h
    Introduction
    PAGEREF _Toc136068298 \\h
    Polymer Nanocomposites
    PAGEREF _Toc136068299 \\h
    PNC Framework
    PAGEREF _Toc136068300 \\h
    Properties And Applications of PNC’S
    PAGEREF _Toc136068301 \\h
    Advantages
    of Nanosized Additions
    PAGEREF _Toc136068302 \\h
    Disadvantages of Nanosized Additions
    PAGEREF _Toc136068303 \\h
    Particle Loadings
    PAGEREF _Toc136068304 \\h
    Areas of Application
    PAGEREF _Toc136068305 \\h
    Gas Barriers
    PAGEREF _Toc136068306 \\h
    Oxygen Barriers
    PAGEREF _Toc136068307 \\h
    Food Packaging
    PAGEREF _Toc136068308 \\h
    Fuel Tanks
    PAGEREF _Toc136068309 \\h
    Films
    PAGEREF _Toc136068310 \\h
    Environmental Protection
    PAGEREF _Toc136068311 \\h
    Flammability Reduction
    PAGEREF _Toc136068312 \\h
    Conclusion
    PAGEREF _Toc136068313 \\h
    REFERENCES
    PAGEREF _Toc136068314 \\h
    INTERNET SOURCES
    PAGEREF _Toc136068315 \\h
    TRANSLATION
    PAGEREF _Toc136068316 \\h
    НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИЯ
    PAGEREF _Toc136068317 \\h
    История
    PAGEREF _Toc136068318 \\h
    Открытия, сделанные в области нанотехнологий
    PAGEREF _Toc136068319 \\h
    Наночастицы
    PAGEREF _Toc136068320 \\h
    Атомно-силовая микроскопия
    PAGEREF _Toc136068321 \\h
    Самоорганизация наночастиц
    PAGEREF _Toc136068322 \\h
    Проблема образования агломератов
    PAGEREF _Toc136068323 \\h
    Новейшие достижения
    PAGEREF _Toc136068324 \\h
    Графен
    PAGEREF _Toc136068325 \\h
    Транзистор из нанотрубок
    PAGEREF _Toc136068326 \\h
    Новый процессор Intel
    PAGEREF _Toc136068327 \\h
    Плазмон
    PAGEREF _Toc136068328 \\h
    Антенна-осциллятор
    PAGEREF _Toc136068329 \\h
    Экономическое развитие индустрии в сфере нанотехнологий
    PAGEREF _Toc136068330 \\h
    Известные личности в сфере нанотехнологий
    PAGEREF _Toc136068331 \\h
    Использованная литература и ссылки
    PAGEREF _Toc136068332 \\h
    Интернет источники
    PAGEREF _Toc136068333 \\h
    NANOTECHNOLOGY
    Nanotechnology research is generating a variety of constructs, giving researchers great flexibility in their efforts to change the paradigm
    Shown here are two such structures. On the left are highly stable
    nanoparticles. On the right are spherical
    dendrimers, which are of rigorously defined size based on the number of monomer layers. Like most of the other
    nanoparticles being developed, these are easily manipulated, affording researchers the opportunity to add a variety of molecules to the surfaces and interiors of
    nanoparticles.
    Nanotechnology comprises technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1 to 100 nm (1/1,000 µm, or 1/1,000,000 mm). A possible way to interpret this size is to
    take the width of a hair, and imagine something ten thousand times smaller. The term has sometimes been applied to microscopic technology. Nanotechnology is any technology which
    exploits phenomena and structures that can only occur at the nanometer scale, which is the scale of several atoms and small molecules. The United States\' National Nanotechnology
    Initiative website [1] defines it as follows: \"Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable
    novel applications.\" Such phenomena include quantum confinement--which can result in different electromagnetic and optical properties of a material between
    nanoparticles and the bulk material; the Gibbs-Thomson effect--which is the lowering of the melting point of a material when it is nanometers in size; and such
    structures as carbon
    nanotubes.
    Nanoscience
    and nanotechnology are an extension of the field of materials science, and materials science departments at universities around the world in conjunction with physics,
    mechanical engineering, bioengineering, and chemical engineering departments are leading the breakthroughs in nanotechnology. The related term nanotechnology is used to describe the
    interdisciplinary fields of science devoted to the study of
    nanoscale phenomena employed in nanotechnology.
    Nanoscience is the world of atoms, molecules, macromolecules, quantum dots, and macromolecular assemblies, and is dominated by surface effects such as Van
    Waals force attraction, hydrogen bonding, electronic charge, ionic bonding, covalent bonding,
    hydrophobicity,
    hydrophilicity, and quantum mechanical tunneling, to the virtual exclusion of macro-scale effects such as turbulence and inertia. For example, the vastly increased
    ratio of surface area to volume opens new possibilities in surface-based science, such as catalysis.
    History of use
    Richard Feynman,
    physicist
    The first mention of some of the distinguishing concepts in nanotechnology (but predating use of that name) was in \"There\'s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,\" a talk given by
    physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. Feynman described a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms
    and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, so on down to the needed scale. In the course of this, he
    noted, scaling issues would arise from the changing magnitude of various physical phenomena: gravity would become less important, surface tension and Van
    Waals attraction would become more important, etc. This basic idea appears feasible, and exponential assembly enhances it with parallelism to produce a useful quantity
    of end products.
    The term \"nanotechnology\" was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper (N. Taniguchi, \"On the Basic Concept of \'
    Nano-Technology\',\" Proc. Intl. Conf. Prod. Eng. Tokyo, Part II, Japan Society of Precision Engineering, 1974.) as follows: \"\'
    Nano-technology\' mainly consists of the processing of, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule.\" In the 1980s the basic
    idea of this definition was explored in much more depth by Dr. Eric
    Drexler, who promoted the technological significance of
    nano-scale phenomena and devices through speeches and the books Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology and
    Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation, (ISBN 0-471-57518-6), and so the term acquired its current sense.
    More broadly, nanotechnology includes the many techniques used to ...

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