The Queen of the UKДисциплина: Иностранные языки
Тип работы: Доклад
Тема: The Queen of the UK
The Queen was born in London on 21 April 1926, the first child of The Duke and Duchess of York, subsequently King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Five weeks later she was
christened Elizabeth Alexandra Mary in the chapel at Buckingham Palace.
The Princess\'s early years were spent at 145 Piccadilly, the London house taken by her parents shortly after her birth; at White Lodge in Richmond Park; and at the country homes
of her grandparents, King George V and Queen Mary, and the Earl and Countess of Strathmore. When she was six years old, her parents took over Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park as
their own country home.
Princess Elizabeth was educated at home with Princess Margaret, her younger sister. After her father succeeded to the throne in 1936 and she became heir presumptive, she started
to study constitutional history and law. She also studied art and music; learned to ride (she has been a keen horsewoman since early childhood); and enjoyed amateur theatricals and
swimming - she won the Children\'s Challenge Shield at London\'s Bath Club when she was thirteen. She enrolled as a Girl Guide when she was eleven, and later became a Sea Ranger.
EARLY PUBLIC LIFE
As the Princess grew older she began to take part in public life. She broadcast for the first time in October 1940, when she was 14; she sent a message during the BBC\'s
programme to all the children of Britain and the Commonwealth, particularly to those children who were being evacuated for safety reasons. In
early1942 she was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Grenadier Guards, and on her sixteenth birthday she carried out her first public engagement, when she inspected the
regiment. In April 1943, Princess Elizabeth carried out her first solo public engagement, when she spent a day with a Grenadier Guards tank battalion in Southern Command.
Thereafter her official duties increased, particularly in connection with young people: she was President of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in Hackney and the
National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. From March 1944 onwards, she also began to accompany the King and Queen on many of their tours within Britain.
Shortly after her eighteenth birthday in 1944, Princess Elizabeth was appointed a
Counsellor of State during the King\'s absence on a tour of the Italian battlefields and, for the first time, carried out some of the duties of Head of State. In August
that year, with Queen Elizabeth, the Princess received an address from the House of Commons, and replied on behalf of the Throne.
In September 1944, the Princess carried out her first official tour of Scotland with her parents, including her first opening ceremony in October when she opened the recently
reconstructed Aberdeen Sailors\' Home. The Princess\'s first flight by air was in July 1945, when she accompanied the King and Queen on a two-day visit to Northern Ireland.
In early 1945 the Princess was made a Subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service (
ATS). By the end of the war she had reached the rank of Junior Commander, having completed her course at No. 1 Mechanical training
ATS and passed out as a fully qualified driver.
After the end of the war, Princess Elizabeth\'s public engagements continued to grow, and she
travelled extensively to attend public functions throughout the British Isles. These included the launching of a new aircraft carrier in Belfast and a tour of Ulster in
March 1946, and attending the National Eisteddfod of Wales in August 1946.
Her first official overseas visit took place in 1947, when she accompanied her parents and sister on a tour of South Africa. During this tour she celebrated her twenty-first
birthday, and gave a broadcast address dedicating herself to the service of the Commonwealth - a dedication she repeated five years later on her accession to the throne.
On her return from the South Africa tour, Princess Elizabeth received the freedom of the City of London in June 1947; in July, she received the freedom of the city of
In November 1947, Princess Elizabeth was created a Lady of the Garter at a private investiture by the King.
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY
Shortly after the Royal Family returned from South Africa, the Princess\'s engagement to Lieutenant Philip
Mountbatten was announced. The couple, who had known each other for many years, were married in Westminster Abbey on 20 November 1947. Lieutenant
Mountbatten, now His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was the son of Prince Andrew of Greece and a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria.
The Royal couple had four children, and seven grandchildren.
Prince Charles, now The Prince of Wales, Heir apparent to the throne, was born in 1948, and his sister, Princess Anne, now The Princess Royal, two years later.
After Princess Elizabeth became Queen, their third child, Prince Andrew, arrived in 1960 and the fourth, Prince Edward, in 1964. Prince Andrew and Prince Edward were the first
children to be born to a reigning monarch since Queen Victoria had her family.
Their grandchildren are Peter and
Zara Phillips (b. 1977 and 1981); Prince William of Wales and Prince Henry of Wales (b. 1982 and 1984); Princess Beatrice of York and Princess Eugenie of York (b. 1988
and 1990); and The Lady Louise Windsor, daughter of The Earl and Countess of
Wessex (b. 2003).
ACCESSION AND CORONATION
After her marriage Princess Elizabeth paid formal visits with The Duke of Edinburgh to France and Greece; in autumn 1951 they toured Canada. She also visited Malta four times
while The Duke was stationed there on naval duties. In 1952, King George VI\'s illness forced him to abandon his proposed visit to Australia and New Zealand. The Princess, accompanied
by Prince Philip, took his place. On 6 February, during the first stage of this journey, in Kenya, she received the news of her father\'s death and her own accession to the
Her Majesty\'s coronation took place in Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953. Representatives of the peers, the Commons and all the great public interests in Britain, the Prime
Ministers and leading citizens of the other Commonwealth countries, and representatives of foreign states were present. The ceremony was broadcast on radio around the world and, at
The Queen\'s request, on television. It was television, then in its relative infancy, that brought home the
splendour and the deep significance of the coronation to many hundreds of thousands of people in a way never before possible. The coronation was followed by drives
through every part of London, a review of the fleet at
Spithead, and visits to Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.
ROLE AS MONARCH
In winter 1953 Her Majesty set out to accomplish, as Queen, the Commonwealth tour she had begun before the death of her father. With The Duke of Edinburgh she visited Bermuda,
Jamaica, Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon, Uganda, Malta and Gibraltar. ...