Вольво, система охлаждения

    Дисциплина: Технические
    Тип работы: Курсовая
    Тема: Вольво, система охлаждения

    Министерство Сельского Хозяйства Российской Федерации
    Департамент кадровой политики и образования
    Московский государственный
    агроинженерный университет имени В.П.
    Кафедра иностранных языков
    Курсовая работа.
    Выполнил: Потапов В.В.
    Проверил: Кулешов А.В.
    Москва, 2004г.
    The history of Volvo (
    Cooling system (
    The seven step path to better decisions (английский оригинал)
    Вольво (перевод)
    Система охлаждения (перевод)
    Семь способов принятия верных решений (перевод)
    The history of Volvo.
    The Volvo 1800 was superseded by the 1800 ES sports coupe in 1971, while the 140 series was replaced by the modern 240/260 three years later. In the USA, the Volvo 240 was
    designated as the standard for car safety. In 1972, Volvo acquired the car division of Dutch carmakers DAF and the Volvo 343 was introduced four years later.
    1970 - Volvo\'s first Sponsorship
    The Volvo Accident Research Team for cars was established. In addition to monitoring crash testing of complete cars and components in the laboratory, Volvo researchers were now
    able to gather valuable information on real-life accidents. Field investigations were complemented by statistics. Since the team\'s foundation, all accident information is supplied to
    Volvo\'s design engineers for use in new car development.
    Volvo car No. 2,000,000 was produced.
    Volvo undertook its first major sports sponsorship - the Volvo Open in golf.
    Fourteen years and 667,323 cars later, the Amazon was discontinued.
    1971 - New Arrivals: P.G. Gyllenhammar and the 1800 ES
    The 1800 ES was the big event of the year in cars. Although the front half was identical to its predecessor, the P1800, the rear half was new and resembled an estate to some
    extent. With a maximum output of 135 hp, the 1800 ES more than fulfilled buyers\' expectations of
    sportiness. Although the model did become popular, it was discontinued only two years later. It is now a cult model which attracts prices many times higher than the
    In 1971, the Volvo Group acquired its third president and CEO when
    Gustaf Gyllenhammar, then just 36 years old, succeeded his father-in-law,
    Engellau. His first act was to offer seats on the board to company employees.
    The same year, the Volvo Group joined Renault and Peugeot in a far-reaching engine development venture, forming a joint company known as PRV for the purpose. The aim was to
    produce six-cylinder engines at a plant in
    Douvrin in the north of France. Production at the facility, which was owned jointly by Renault and Peugeot, continued until 1990.
    Volvo commenced car production in Melbourne, Australia in 1971.
    1972 - Belt-Driven Volvo
    The Volvo Group has acquired a large number of other companies throughout its history. However, this includes only one carmaker - DAF. To meet the wishes of dealers anxious to
    complement their ranges with a small car, Volvo agreed to acquire a 30% shareholding in the Dutch company\'s car operation and its plant at Born in the southern Netherlands, as of 1
    January 1973. In 1975, Volvo increased its shareholding to 75% and the company was renamed Volvo Car B.V.
    Although not an attractive model, the Volvo Experimental Safety Car (VESC) provided a powerful answer to existing and future traffic safety problems, not only in Europe, but
    especially in the USA.
    Volvo\'s first environmental policy was articulated by P.G. Gyllenhammar at the UN Environmental Conference in Stockholm.
    A seat belt reminder was the biggest safety innovation introduced in production models.
    Inertia reel belts also made their appearance in the rear seats.
    The company\'s biggest investment in 1972 was the new Volvo Technical Centre (VTC), which was built to house all new car development activities.
    1973 - Fantastic Test Track
    The original test track at
    Stora Holm had become far too small and too difficult to shield from the prying eyes and lenses of a press anxious to uncover secret projects. As a result, the company
    decided to build an enormous test facility at H
    , deep in the forest between G
    s. The principal feature was the main track, a six-
    kilometre oval with four lanes and banked bends, which enabled a driver to drive at 200 km/h without touching the wheel.
    Volvo was to start car production in Chesapeake, Virginia in 1973. However, economic conditions, combined with the first oil crisis, dictated otherwise and it was decided to build
    buses instead. In the event, this was not a success and the plant was finally used to produce Volvo
    Penta engines and drives. Volvo
    Penta\'s American headquarters are still located in Chesapeake today.
    The USA became Volvo\'s biggest car market.
    1974 - \'Human\' Plant Opened in
    Volvo inaugurated what was to become known as the \'human car plant\' in
    Kalmar. In the new facility, the conventional production line was replaced by a system of manually controlled carriers, with automatic loop-controlled carriers supplying
    the assembly materials. The workforce was
    organised in autonomous groups, each with a high degree of responsibility for its own work. In its 20 years of operation, the plant attracted international attention as a
    model working environment.
    The biggest car news of the year was the appearance of the successor to the 140/160 series, the Volvo 240/260, which bore a strong resemblance to the 1972 VESC, not only in
    terms of appearance but also as regards safety features. The Volvo 240 was subsequently designated as the standard for car safety in the USA. The Volvo 260 was powered by a newly
    developed V6 engine produced at the PRV plant in
    1975 - The Smallest Volvo Ever
    DAF cars continued to be sold under their original name for some years following the Volvo takeover. By 1975, however, the DAF 66 had improved to the extent that it was renamed
    the Volvo 66.
    Volvo was already working in collaboration with
    Yngve Nilsson, a bodybuilding firm located in
    Laholm, south of Gothenburg. In 1975, the company introduced no less than three specially built, \'stretched\' models bodied by Nilsson - the Volvo 245 T (a \'stretched\' 245
    intended as a taxi), the 265 Ambulance and the 245 Hearse.
    1976 - A Rugged New Arrival
    The most important reason for Volvo\'s acquisition of DAF - the Volvo 343 - was introduced in February 1976. A medium-class car with rugged styling, the model was equipped with
    DAF\'s unique
    Variomatic continuously variable transmission. Extremely easy to drive, the car boasted exceptional handling thanks to its advanced design of rear axle, combined with the
    ideal weight distribution afforded by the rear-. mounted transmission Although the 343 suffered from a number of teething troubles, these were soon corrected and the car became
    extremely popular, especially in Britain, Sweden and the Netherlands.
    In Britain, Volvo was awarded the prestigious Don Safety Trophy for its achievements in automotive safety.
    The NHTSA...

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