The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)Дисциплина: Педагогика
Тип работы: Реферат
Тема: The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)
The School Education in Great Britain
The aim of education in general is to develop to the full the talents of both children and adults for their own benefit and that of society as a whole. It is a
large-scale investment in the future.
The educational system of Great Britain has developed for over a hundred years. It is a complicated system with wide variations between one part of the country and another.
Three partners are responsible for the education service: central government – the Department of Education and Science (DES), local education authorities (LEAs), and schools
themselves. The legal basis for this partnership is supplied by the 1944 Education Act.
The Department of Education and Science is concerned with the formation of national policies for education. It is responsible for the maintenance of minimum national standard of
education. In exercising its functions the DES is assisted by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate. The primary functions of the Inspectors are to give professional advice to the Department,
local education authorities, schools and colleges, and discuss day-to-day problems with them.
Local education authorities are charged with the provision and day-to-day running of the schools and colleges in their areas and the recruitment and payment of the teachers who
them. They are responsible for the provision of buildings, materials and equipment. However, the choice of text-books and timetable are usually left to the
headmaster. The content and method of teaching is decided by the individual teacher.
The administrative functions of education in each area are in the hands of a Chief Education Officer who is assisted by a deputy and other officials.
Until recently planning and organization were not controlled by central government. Each LEA was free to decide how
to organize education in its own area. In 1988, however, the National Curriculum was introduced, which means that there is now greater government control over what is taught in
schools. The aim was to provide a more balanced education. The new curriculum places greater emphasis on the more practical aspects of education. Skills are being taught which pupils
will need for life and work.
The chief elements of the national Curriculum include a broad and balanced framework of study which emphasizes the practical applications of knowledge. It is based around the
core subjects of English, mathematics and science ( biology, chemistry, etc.) as well as a number of other foundation subjects, including geography, history, technology and modern
The education reform of 1988 also gave all secondary as well as larger
primary schools responsibilities for managing the major part of their budgets, including costs of staff. Schools received the right to withdraw from local
education authority control if they wished.
Together with the National Curriculum, a programme of Records of Achievements was introduced. This programme contains a system of new tests for pupils at the ages of
7, 11, 13 and 16. The aim of these tests is to discover any schools or areas which are not teaching to a high enough standard. But many believe that these tests
are unfair because they reflect differences in home rather than in ability.
The great majority of children (about 9 million) attend Britain’s 30,500 state schools. No tuition fees are payable in any of them. A further 600,000 go to 2,500 private
schools, often referred to as the “independent sector” where the parents have to pay for their children.
In most primary and secondary state schools boys and girls are taught together. Most independent schools for younger children are also mixed, while the majority of private
secondary schools are single-sex.
State schools are almost all day
schools, holding classes between Mondays and Fridays. The school year normally begins in early September and continues into the following July. The year is divided
into three terms of about 13 weeks each.
Two-thirds of state schools are wholly owned and maintained by LEAs. The remainder are voluntary schools, mostly belonging to the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church.
They are also financed by LEAs.
Every state school has its own governing body (a board of governors), consisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, businessmen and members of the local community. Boards
of governors are responsible for their school’s main policies, including the recruitment of the staff.
A great role is played by the Parent Teacher Association (PTA). Practically all parents are automatically members of the PTA and are invited to take part in its many activities.
Parental involvement through the PTA and other links between parents and schools is growing . The PTA forms both a special focus for parents and much valued additional resources for
the school. Schools place great value on the PTA as a further means of listening to parents and developing the partnership between home and school. A Parent’s Charter published by the
Government in 1991 is designed to enable parents to take more informed decisions about their children’s education.
Compulsory education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland, and at the age of 4 in Northern Ireland. All pupils must stay at school until the age of 16. About 9
per cent of pupils in state schools remain at school voluntarily until the age of 18.
Education within the state school system comprises either two tiers (stages) – primary and secondary, or three tiers – first schools, middle schools and upper schools.
Nearly all state secondary schools are comprehensive, they embrace pupils from 11 to 18. The word “comprehensive” expresses the idea that the schools in question take all
children in a given area without, selection.
Education for the under-fives, mainly from 3 to 5, is not compulsory and can be provided in nursery schools and nursery classes attached to primary schools. Although they are
called schools, they give little formal education. The children spend most of their time in some sort of play activity, as far as possible of an educational kind. In any case, there are
not enough of them to take all children of that age group. A large proportion of children at this beginning stage is in the private sector where fees are payable. Many children attend
pre-school playgroups, mostly organized by parents, where children can go for a morning or afternoon a couple of times a week.
The primary school usually takes children from 5 to 11. Over half of the primary schools take the complete age group from 5 to 11. The remaining schools take the pupils aged 5 to
7 – infant schools, and
8 to 11 – junior schools. However, some LEAs have introduced first school, taking children aged 5 to 8, 9 to 10. The first school is followed by the middle school
which embraces children from 8 to 14. Next comes the upper school (the third tier) which keeps middle school ...