The diabetic diet

    Дисциплина: Медицина
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: The diabetic diet




    Abstract on English by

    Kuranov Alina Olegovna – a student of

    Essentuki medical college group № 261.



    Diabetes Mellitus (when the term diabetes is used alone, it always refers to diabetes mellitus) is a condition in which the body is unable to use sugar properly. Sugar

    (carbohydrate) is the substance our body uses as its major source of energy. Once this sugar is absorbed in the blood, it is referred to as blood sugar or blood glucose.

    Insulin (a hormone made in the pancreas that regulates the blood sugar) is either missing or deficient. As a result, the body cannot use energy nutrients (carbohydrates, fat, protein)

    effectively and the cells of the body \"starve\". The sugar in the blood may rise to high levels instead of being used for energy. Blood sugar is excreted through urine, which

    makes extra work for the kidneys causing frequent urination and excessive thirst.


    Diet, exercise and medication are important factors that must be coordinated for diabetes to be kept in control. Medication is not used to treat all cases of diabetes.

    Medication when used can either be in the form of a pill (oral hypoglycemic agents) or insulin, which must be injected. Diet, exercise and medication all affect treatment but unless

    the diet plan is followed carefully no method of treatment will be effective. By eating the right foods in the right amounts diet can actually help control the basic problem of


    According to Control Your Diabetes Education Program for Life, a program sponsored by the National Diabetes Education Program, people who take control of diabetes will, in the

    short run, feel better, have more energy, and prevent the following signs and symptoms of high blood sugar: thirst, fatigue, frequent urination, weight loss, blurred vision, and slow

    healing of cuts and bruises. In the long run, they decrease their chances of developing eye disease, kidney disease, and nerve damage, and add years to their lives.


    Purpose: The diabetic diet is designed to achieve and maintain desirable body weight and near normal blood glucose levels, reduce hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and associated

    symptoms of diabetes in order to minimize the complications frequently associated with this disease.

    Use: It is used for the person with either insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The calorie-controlled diet may be adapted for weight

    reduction and weight maintenance.

    The calorie level prescribed for the diabetic is based on whether the person needs to lose or gain weight or simply maintain the present weight. The calorie level specified is

    determined from the height, body build, ideal weight and physical activity level.

    General Guidelines for the Diabetic Diet.


    concentrated sources of carbohydrates

    (sugars) such as table sugar, honey, jelly, jam, molasses, syrup, corn syrup, candy, regular soft drinks, pies, doughnuts, cookies, pastries, regular chewing gum, and sweet


    Avoid sweetened fruits, juices and fruit drinks. Choose fruit, which is fresh, frozen or packed in water or its own juice.






    Avoid sweetened carbonated sodas, juices and water.

    Learn foods both high and low in sugar that are presented in the

    No Concentrated Sweet Food List

    Three meals at regular times should be consumed daily.



    A nutritionally adequate meal plan that limits the amount of

    saturated fat, cholesterol and salt

    in the diet. Fat intake should be 30% or less of caloric intake and less than 10% of daily caloric intake from saturated fat. Dietary cholesterol should be limited to 300 mg or

    less daily.





    Daily consumption of 20-35 g of

    dietary fiber

    from a wide variety of foods is recommended.

    Mild to

    moderate weight loss

    (10-20 pounds. has been shown to improve diabetes control, even if desirable body weight is not achieved.)

    Read the

    label to determine the sugar

    content of packaged foods. In addition to sugar, brown sugar and corn syrup, other names that are used on ingredient labels include: sucrose, glucose, dextrose, fructose, maltose,

    lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, honey, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, high fructose corn syrup, molasses, maple syrup.

    Monitoring of lipids, blood pressure and body weight is crucial.

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and daily monitoring of blood glucose are standard tools to measure glucose control.

    For individuals with

    Type 1 diabetes

    , self-monitoring 4 times daily or more is recommended to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels and gain control. Testing 4 times a day, before each meal, and at

    bedtime, facilitates adjustments to insulin, meals, and exercise program.

    For individuals with

    Type 2 diabetes

    , self-monitoring 1-2 times daily or more is recommended to avoid hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia symptoms.

    Newly diagnosed

    individuals should test blood glucose 4 times a day, before each meal, and at bedtime, or more is recommended to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels and gain









    After a stable pattern has been established in blood glucose levels, individuals should test before breakfast, 3-7 times each week. Once or twice each month you should

    return to testing 4 times a day (before each meal, and at bedtime) to assure maintenance of a stable pattern.



    Purpose: The no concentrated sweets, low fat diet is designed to limit the total amount of fat and sugar in the diet to reduce serum lipid levels and to achieve and maintain

    near normal blood glucose levels. This diet is for people who find the exchange system too confusing or restricting to follow.

    Use: It is used for the person with either non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or for people who need or want to cut down on their sugar and fat intake. The

    calorie-controlled diet

    may be adapted for weight reduction and weight maintenance for individuals that

    do not

    have diabetes. It is also used for persons with elevated serum cholesterol levels or those who are high-risk candidates for heart disease.

    General Guidelines.

    Limit total fat intake to less than 30% of total daily calories.


    saturated fat intake

    (red meat, cheese, whole milk, butter, ice cream, etc.)

    Eat less


    (stick margarine, shortening, cakes, pies, French fries, snack chips.)

    Eat less


    (limit egg yolks to more than 4 per week and meat, fish, poultry to no more than 6 ounces a day)




    Eat more fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grain breads, and cereals.




    Exercise at least 30 minutes on most days (brisk walking, aerobics, biking, etc.)

    Experiment with recipes by gradually reducing the amount of sugar by 1/4th then l/3rd then 1/2.

    Use the \"sweet\" spices—cinnamon cloves ginger o...

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