Poland and Hungary are in Transition

    Дисциплина: Иностранные языки
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Poland and Hungary are in Transition

    Shamil Bikbov

    MA Program “Studies in European Societies”

    Poland and Hungary are in Transition

    The transition of Eastern Europe countries from centralized, planned economy toward market economy was very dramatic for every country of region; it was not only pure economic

    transformation but institutional and cultural transformation as well.

    This paper devoted to Polish and Hungarian reforms in transition period, the countries that could be examined as the most successful in their transition to market economy among other

    post-communist countries.

    Polish reforms

    Until “Solidarity” won the parliamentary elections in Poland in the summer of 1989, the Polish economy had been, since the end of World War II, a rather typical planned socialist

    economic system. State ownership was dominated, and though economic reform was attempted in varying degrees at different times, little real systemic change had taken place.

    In the beginning of 1990, Poland took decisive steps toward a market economy. This "shock therapy" approach was to be sudden, and in this it differed significantly from the

    gradualist approach being discussed in other socialist systems.

    The "Shock Therapy" approach has not been without critics. Moreover, although the Polish case quickly attracted the interest of those who study the problems of socialist transition,

    it was viewed as unique. The reform was much more likely to succeed in Poland than in a case like Russia. But before we examine the Polish reform experience more detail, we must review

    what brought the Polish economy to the reform phase and how, at that point, it might be different from other socialist countries.

    The Background

    The organizational system of the Polish command economy was established immediately after World War II and was close to the Soviet Union’s type. There was widespread nationalization

    of property, central planning mechanisms were established, and agriculture was socialized.

    Although Poland attempted modification of the command system as early as 1956 when collectivization was abandoned, little actually changed. Over time, private agriculture was

    neglected by the state, and continuing political protests, especially in the early 1970s, signaled both political and economic difficulties.

    The 1970s was a difficult decade for many countries, especially those that rely on imported oil. The Polish strategy in the 1970s and later was to stimulate the domestic economy

    through the importation of foreign technology. This was not an unreasonable strategy in theory, but Western economies were themselves in the centre of the energy crisis and the

    recession it caused. Poland's effort to expand exports failed, hard-currency debt accumulated, and the projected impact of Western technology on the Polish economy was minimal. As the

    1970s came to an end, it was evident that domestic reduction would be essential — a difficult path in light of the continuing unrest among Polish workers. The 1980s began with roughly

    three years of militant law and an attempt to achieve economic stabilization.

    After half-hearted economic reforms in the early 1980s, the rise of “Solidarity” (which had been outlawed in 1982) proved that major systemic and structural reform was necessary.

    Even so, and despite the fact that Polish economic performance was deteriorating badly, serious economic reform did not begin until the late 1980s.

    The Polish Transition

    The Polish transition from plan to market has been watched closely by a variety of interested observers. Although many of the policy and systemic changes introduced in Poland are

    familiar hallmarks of the general reform scene, the speed of implementation in the Polish case is unique.

    There had been attempts to decentralize decision making in large state-owned Polish enterprises in the 1980s, but these reforms failed to change outcomes (a possible exception is

    their contribution to the wage explosion that took place toward the end of the decade). Moreover, on ...

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