Education in the Middle AgesДисциплина: Педагогика
Тип работы: Реферат
Тема: Education in the Middle Ages
The Russian State Social University
Report on Pedagogics.
“Education in the Middle Ages
Made by the first-year
student of faculty of
Chrcked by Khajrullin
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Education in the Orthodox Christian Civilization
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The Russian offshoot of the Orthodox Christian Civilization
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Education in the Western Civilization
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In A.D. 476 the Roman Empire, as universal state of the Hellenic Civilization, collapsed. This date is considered to be the beginning of the European Middle Ages. The
Middle Ages covers the period from the fifth century till the sixteenth century. Middle Ages are divided into the early Middle Ages (V-IX centuries), the Middle Ages (X-XIII
centuries), and Renaissance (XIV-XVI centuries).
Education in the Orthodox Christian Civilization
Although the stages in the history of the Orthodox Christian Civilization can be identified and dated, the scanty materials about education do not permit a comparable
division in the development thereof. There were scholars in plenty in the society at many different stages, but education is rarely described either by them or by the historians, and
the allusions to curricula, methods, and personnel are for the most part vague and ambiguous. There is little direct evidence about schools; what indirect evidence there is must be
derived almost entirely from biographies of a relatively few individuals.
One of the distinguishing characteristics of the Orthodox Christian Civilization was the close relationship between church and state, in antithesis to the separation of
church and state in the Western world. The whole outlook and orientation of the society was grounded in religion so that the church, as the official institution of religion, exerted
an incalculably great influence on all aspects of life including the "secular every-day education" and the affairs of the state supported university.
At the same time, however, public education in the society was predominantly secular and independent of the church. Little is known about primary and secondary, but it
is Marrou's opinion that in the East, there was a "direct continuation" of the classical education that prevailed under the Roman Empire. Certainly the basis continued to be grammar
and the classics, and the same textbooks and commentaries continued to be used and copied. In higher education, the dominant institution was the university at Constantinople, which
had been founded A.D. 425 by Theodosius II, and the curriculum in it remained entirely classical.
Thus by the time of the emergence of the civilization, the education and culture were Greek and the lay, secular education was classical, but behind the Greek culture
and the secular education the influence of religion and of the orthodox church were extremely powerful.
There were three types of education, or, rather, three types of schools: the classical, secular, lay schools which included the university and its preparatory schools,
in which there was a predominantly secular secondary training; the monastic school; and the special patriarchal schools. Each of the three, and the preparation for it, will be treated
The Orthodox Christian child was brought up in the "nurture and admonition of the Lord" and listened at night to stories from the Bible, was made to learn some of it by
heart, particularly the Psalms, and was trained in correct (Greek) pronunciation. The child was later on to be taught from pagan textbooks and was to read pagan literature,
especially Homer, as a matter of course; at home he learned that "our" — that is, the Christian — learning was the true and that the pagan literature, if not actually false, was only
in praise of virtue disguised as verse or story.
At the age of six or seven or eight the boy went to an elementary school. Most towns of size had at least one school with a fairly competent teacher or teachers, and
children of all social classes could attend the schools; it seems that tuition fees were charged and that the schools were privately operated. The main subject of study in the
elementary school was reading and writing. When the boy was ten or twelve he began the study of "grammar."
This study of grammar appears to have been a thorough grounding in classical Greek language and literature, especially in the form and matter of poetry, chiefly Homer.
Homer was probably still learned by heart, and explained word by word.
After the student had mastered "grammar" he was ready to go on to a university. The curriculum at the university seems to have been, again, still classical in method and
content. For rhetoric, the student would read and memorize Greek masterpieces, and compose speeches according to classical rules and in imitation of the older style. For philosophy he
used chiefly Aristotle, Plato, and the Neo-Platonists. He seems to have got, somewhere in his education, a knowledge of mathematics and astronomy, and of the natural sciences,
although it is not clear at what stage they were introduced. The university curriculum was organized, more or less, into the classical Trivium and Quadrivium.
But "neither the names nor the sequence of different branches of Byzantine education are very clear." School and university subjects appear to have overlapped; some
study of medicine appears to have figured in both, as did some study of the law.
There were important centres of higher learning at Athens, Alexandria, Caesarea, Gaza, Antioch, Ephesus, Nicaea, Edessa and, of course, the law school at Beirut. Most of
these were destroyed by the Muslim conquests, but culture was still alive in Athens in the twelfth century, Nicaea remained an important centre of learning throughout the growth
period and through most of the time of troubles of the civilization, and Edessa in the ninth century still supported a public teacher of grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy.
The second type of school in Orthodox Christendom was the monastic school. It was exclusively for those who had dedicated themselves to the religious life, or those
whose parents had dedicated them to it, for children were admitted at a very early age. From the beginning of Orthodox Christendom as a separate society until the thirteenth century
the ban on lay children in the monastery schools was in force. The teaching in these schools was narrowly confined to the Scriptures (illiterate novices learned the Psalms by ear and
by heart), orthodox commentaries thereon, lives of saints, and a few patristic works. The children were taught to read and write but the instruction seems not to have been taken
beyond the elementary stage. The monastic schools did not provide the counter to the highly secular educati...
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