Education in the Middle Ages

    Дисциплина: Педагогика
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Education in the Middle Ages

    The Russian State Social University

    Report on Pedagogics.

    “Education in the Middle Ages

    Made by the first-year

    student of faculty of

    foreign languages,

    Chrcked by Khajrullin

    Ruslan Zinatullovich.

    Moscow

    2005

    Contents

    TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u

    Preface

    PAGEREF _Toc105750725 \h

    Education in the Orthodox Christian Civilization

    PAGEREF _Toc105750726 \h

    The Russian offshoot of the Orthodox Christian Civilization

    PAGEREF _Toc105750727 \h

    Education in the Western Civilization

    PAGEREF _Toc105750728 \h

    Conclusion

    PAGEREF _Toc105750729 \h

    bibliographic List

    PAGEREF _Toc105750730 \h

    Preface

    In A.D. 476 the Roman Empire, as universal state of the Hellenic Civilization, collapsed. This date is considered to be the beginning of the European Middle Ages. The

    Middle Ages covers the period from the fifth century till the sixteenth century. Middle Ages are divided into the early Middle Ages (V-IX centuries), the Middle Ages (X-XIII

    centuries), and Renaissance (XIV-XVI centuries).

    Education in the Orthodox Christian Civilization

    Although the stages in the history of the Orthodox Christian Civil­ization can be identified and dated, the scanty materials about educa­tion do not permit a comparable

    division in the development thereof. There were scholars in plenty in the society at many different stages, but education is rarely described either by them or by the historians, and

    the allusions to curricula, methods, and personnel are for the most part vague and ambiguous. There is little direct evidence about schools; what indirect evidence there is must be

    derived almost en­tirely from biographies of a relatively few individuals.

    One of the distinguishing characteristics of the Orthodox Christian Civilization was the close relationship between church and state, in antithesis to the separation of

    church and state in the Western world. The whole outlook and orien­tation of the society was grounded in religion so that the church, as the official institution of religion, exerted

    an incalculably great in­fluence on all aspects of life including the "secular every-day educa­tion" and the affairs of the state supported university.

    At the same time, however, public education in the society was pre­dominantly secular and independent of the church. Little is known about primary and secondary, but it

    is Marrou's opinion that in the East, there was a "direct continuation" of the classical education that prevailed under the Roman Empire. Certainly the basis continued to be grammar

    and the classics, and the same textbooks and commentaries continued to be used and copied. In higher education, the dominant institution was the univer­sity at Constantinople, which

    had been founded A.D. 425 by Theo­dosius II, and the curriculum in it remained entirely classical.

    Thus by the time of the emergence of the civilization, the education and culture were Greek and the lay, secular education was classical, but behind the Greek culture

    and the secular education the influence of religion and of the orthodox church were extremely powerful.

    There were three types of education, or, rather, three types of schools: the classical, secular, lay schools which included the univer­sity and its preparatory schools,

    in which there was a predominantly secular secondary training; the monastic school; and the special patriarchal schools. Each of the three, and the preparation for it, will be treated

    in turn.

    The Orthodox Christian child was brought up in the "nurture and admonition of the Lord" and listened at night to stories from the Bible, was made to learn some of it by

    heart, particularly the Psalms, and was trained in correct (Greek) pronunci­ation. The child was later on to be taught from pagan textbooks and was to read pagan literature,

    especially Homer, as a matter of course; at home he learned that "our" — that is, the Christian — learning was the true and that the pagan literature, if not actually false, was only

    in praise of virtue disguised as verse or story.

    At the age of six or seven or eight the boy went to an elementary school. Most towns of size had at least one school with a fairly competent teacher or teachers, and

    children of all social classes could attend the schools; it seems that tuition fees were charged and that the schools were privately operated. The main subject of study in the

    elementary school was reading and writing. When the boy was ten or twelve he began the study of "grammar."

    This study of grammar appears to have been a thorough grounding in classical Greek language and literature, especially in the form and matter of poetry, chiefly Homer.

    Homer was probably still learned by heart, and explained word by word.

    After the student had mastered "grammar" he was ready to go on to a university. The curriculum at the university seems to have been, again, still classical in method and

    content. For rhetoric, the student would read and memorize Greek masterpieces, and compose speeches according to classical rules and in imitation of the older style. For philosophy he

    used chiefly Aristotle, Plato, and the Neo-Platonists. He seems to have got, somewhere in his education, a knowledge of mathematics and astronomy, and of the natural sciences,

    although it is not clear at what stage they were introduced. The university cur­riculum was organized, more or less, into the classical Trivium and Quadrivium.

    But "neither the names nor the sequence of different branches of Byzantine education are very clear." School and university subjects appear to have overlapped; some

    study of medicine appears to have figured in both, as did some study of the law.

    There were important centres of higher learning at Athens, Alexandria, Caesarea, Gaza, Antioch, Ephesus, Nicaea, Edessa and, of course, the law school at Beirut. Most of

    these were destroyed by the Muslim conquests, but culture was still alive in Athens in the twelfth century, Nicaea remained an important centre of learning throughout the growth

    period and through most of the time of troubles of the civilization, and Edessa in the ninth century still supported a public teacher of grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy.

    The second type of school in Orthodox Christendom was the monastic school. It was exclusively for those who had dedicated them­selves to the religious life, or those

    whose parents had dedicated them to it, for children were admitted at a very early age. From the beginning of Orthodox Christendom as a separate society until the thirteenth century

    the ban on lay children in the monastery schools was in force. The teaching in these schools was narrowly confined to the Scriptures (illiterate novices learned the Psalms by ear and

    by heart), orthodox commentaries thereon, lives of saints, and a few patristic works. The children were taught to read and write but the instruction seems not to have been taken

    beyond the elementary stage. The monastic schools did not provide the counter to the highly secular educati...

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